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Updated: Dec 27 2021


  • Snapshot
    • A 36-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after coughing up blood. She reported some progressively worsening shortness of breath and on the day of presentation had an episode of hemoptysis. She has a past medical history of a complete molar pregnancy, where she underwent a dilation and curettage to evacuate the hydatidiform mole. A radiagraph of the chest demonstrates multiple radiopaque pulmonary lesions. Laboratory studies are remarkable for highly elevated β-hCG.
  • Introduction
    • Overview
      • a type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
        • made up of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts without villi
        • most commonly of placental origin
        • most commonly spreads to the lungs, leading to shortness of breath and hemoptysis
        • can follow a molar pregnancy or can arise from the ovaries and testes as a germ cell tumor
  • Epidemiology
    • Incidence
      • extremely rare (< 1% of ovarian tumors)
    • Associated conditions
      • theca-lutein ovarian cysts
      • molar pregnancy (more common after a complete than a partial mole)
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • shortness of breath and hemoptysis
        • suggests metastasis to the lung
    • Physical exam
      • pelvic mass
  • Imaging
    • Radiography of the chest
      • indication
        • to evaluate cause of shortness of breath or hemoptysis
      • findings
        • "cannonball" metastases
  • Studies
    • Serum labs
      • ↑ β-hCG
    • Histology
      • trophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts with syncytiotrophoblast
      • central hemorrhage with necrosis
      • cytologic atypia
  • Differential
    • Dysgerminoma
      • differentiating factors
        • associated with elevated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH)
  • Treatment
    • Medical
      • chemotherapy
        • indication
          • mainstay of treatment
            • highly sensitive to chemotherapy
  • Complications
    • Hemorrhage
      • secondary to its high vascularity
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