0%
Topic
Review Topic
0
0
N/A
N/A
Questions
2 2
0
0
0%
0%
Evidence
1 1
0
0
Snapshot
  • A 32-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician with one day of painless, bloody discharge from the right nipple. She reports that she has otherwise been in good health. She is nulliparous. Examination of the right breast reveals no palpable mass, but blood is expressed from the nipple. There is no lymphadenopathy in the axilla.
Introduction
  • Overview
    • benign polypoid epithelial tumors in located in the lactiferous ducts of breast
    • most common cause of bloody discharge in a women under 50 
    • develops in close proximity to the nipple
  • Epidemiology
    • makes up 48% of cases of pathologic nipple discharge
  • Prognosis
    • 1.5-2x risk of breast cancer compared to general population
    • typically does not convert to carcinoma but can hide DCIS within the papilloma
Presentation
  • Symptoms 
    • painless unilateral nipple bleeding
  • Physical exam
    • blood expressible from nipple
    • usually no mass found on physical exam
      • typically 1-5 mm in diameter
Imaging
  • Ultrasound
    • indications
      • any patient with pathologic nipple discharge
    • findings
      • intraductal mass
  • Mammography
    • indications
      • follow up to ultrasound in the following patients
        • ≥30 years old
        • <30 years old with suspicious abnormality on ultrasound
  • Core needle biospy
    • indications
      • intraductal mass on ultrasound or mammography
    • findings
      • if atypical cells found then follow up with excisional biopsy
  • Excisional biopsy
    • indications
      • patient with papilloma on imaging and atypical cells on core needle biopsy
    • findings
      • used to rule out intraductal papillary carcinoma
Studies
  • Serum TSH, prolactin, hCG levels
    • indications
      • used to rule out galactorrhea in patients with non-bloody discharge 
Differential
  • Intraductal papillary carcinoma
    • key distinguishing factors
      • evidence of carcinoma on core needle biopsy/excisional biopsy
  • Galactorrhea
    • key distinguishing factors
      • non-bloody, milky nipple discharge 
      • typically caused by pituitary prolactinoma
  • Nipple fissure
    • key distinguishing factors
      • skin irritation/fissure causing bleeding
      • no mass on imaging
  • Breast mastitis
    • key distinguishing factors
      • signs of infection
      • skin erythema
      • can occur secondary to breastfeeding
Treatment
  • Surgical
    • excisional biopsy
      • indications
        • both diagnostic and therapeutic
Complications
  • Risk of DCIS found within papilloma
 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 1 Ratings

Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK

(M2.ON.16.99) A 32-year-old woman presents to her physician concerned about wet spots on the inside part of her dress shirts, which she thinks it may be coming from one of her breasts. She states that it is painless and that the discharge is usually blood-tinged. She denies any history of malignancy in her family and states that she has been having regular periods since they first started at age 13. She does not have any children. The patient has normal vitals and denies any cough, fever. On exam, there are no palpable masses, and the patient does not have any erythema or induration. What is the most likely diagnosis? Review Topic | Tested Concept

QID: 104739
1

Fibrocystic changes

0%

(0/0)

2

Paget's disease

0%

(0/0)

3

Breast abscess

0%

(0/0)

4

Ductal carcinoma

0%

(0/0)

5

Intraductal papilloma

0%

(0/0)

L 2 C

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

Evidences (1)
Topic COMMENTS (6)
Private Note