Updated: 1/10/2022

Anti-Helminths

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  • Snapshot
    • A 30-year-old man presents to the urgent care clinic for fevers, a skin rash, and a cough. He reports that he had traveled to Japan last week. He had walked around the coastline barefoot and ate many meals of raw fish. He also reports having some unexpected weight loss and loss of appetite. On exam, he has edematous pink plaques consistent with urticaria. Basic laboratory evaluation is largely normal with the exception of elevated eosinophil levels. He is suspected of having Katayama fever and a stool exam is ordered, revealing eggs with a lateral spine. He is started on praziquantel. (Schistosoma japonicum infection)
  • Introduction
    • Drugs
      • pyrantel pamoate
      • ivermectin
      • mebendazole
      • praziquantel
      • diethylcarbamazine
      • niridazole
    • Clinical use
      • helminths
        • cestodes (tapeworms)
        • trematodes (flukes)
        • nematodes (roundworms)
      • Anti-Helminth Medications
      • Drug
      • Mechanism of Action
      • Adverse Effects
      • Helminth
      • Pyrantel pamoate
      • Neuromuscular blocking agent, causing depolarization
      • Gastrointestinal upset
      •  Headaches
      • Nematodes:
      • Enterobius
      • Ancylostoma
      • Necator
      • Ivermectin
      • Binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels, causing hyperpolarization
      •  Skin pruritus
      • Nematodes:
      • Onchocerca (Rivermectin)
      • Strongyloides
      • Bendazole
      • Inhibits tubulin polymerization, interfering with microtubule formation
      • Gastrointestinal upset
      •  Stevens-Johnson syndrome
      • Mebendazole
      • Nematodes:
      • Enterobius
      • Ascaris
      • Toxocara
      • Trichuris
      • Trichinella
      • Strongyloides
      • Ancylostoma
      • Necator
      • Albendazole:
      • cestodes
      • Taenia
      • Echinococcus
      • Praziquantel
      • Unknown, may interfere with cell membrane permeability and cause paralysis in the helminth
      • Gastrointestinal upset
      •  Dizziness
      • Cestodes:
      • Taenia
      • Diphyllobothrium
      •  Trematodes:
      • Schistosoma
      • Clonorchis
      • Paragonimus
      • Diethylcarbamazine
      • Inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism, making the helminth more susceptible to the host's innate immune system
      • Skin pruritus
      •  Facial swelling
      •  Headaches
      • Nematodes:
      • Wucheria
      • Loa loa
      • Niridazole
      • Inhibits oogenesis and spermatogenesis
      • Central nervous system toxicity
      • Nematode
      • Dracunculus

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