Updated: 8/2/2019

Common Cold

0%
Topic
Review Topic
0
0
N/A
N/A
Questions
3
0
0
Topic
Snapshot
  • A 35-year-old gentleman presents to the urgent care center for a cough, runny nose, and sore throat of a week duration. Yesterday, his cough worsened, and he began coughing up yellow sputum. On physical exam, his lungs reveal rales in the right lower lobe. A chest radiograph demonstrates a right lower lobe infiltrate. He is started on antibiotics for pneumonia. (Coronavirus infection with bacterial superinfection)
Introduction
  • Clinical definition
    • acute infection of upper respiratory system often caused by viral agents
  • Epidemiology
    • incidence
      • very common
    • demographics
      • all ages
    • risk factors
      • immunosuppression
      • sick contacts
      • smoking
      • recent travel on airplane
  • Etiology
    • rhinovirus (most common)
    • coronavirus (second most common)
    • influenza
    • respiratory syncytial virus
    • parainfluenza virus
    • adenovirus
  • Pathogenesis
    • depends on specific viral agent
    • viral replication often occurs in tracheobronchial epithelium (except rhinovirus, which replicates in the nasopharynx epithelium)
  • Prevention
    • no vaccines available
  • Prognosis
    • self-limited but may last for 2 weeks
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • rhinorrhea
    • congestion
    • cough
    • sore throat
    • malaise
  • Physical exam
    • low-grade fever
    • hoarse voice
    • lungs are usually clear to auscultation
Imaging
  • Chest radiography
    • indication
      • only if pneumonia is suspected (e.g., lung exam with rales or focal crackles/rhonchi)
    • findings
      • lobar consolidation
Studies
  • Making the diagnosis
    • based on clinical presentation
    • diagnosis of exclusion in patients with immunosuppression
Differential
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis
    • distinguishing factor
      • typically presents with erythematous pharynx, tonsillar exudates, petechiae, and tender lymphadenopathy
      • tests positive on a rapid strep test
  • Infectious mononucleosis
    • distinguishing factor
      • erythematous oropharyynx, tonsillar exudates, petechiae, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly
      • tests positive on monospot test 
  • Influenza
    • distinguishing factor
      • systemic symptoms usually predominate with high fever and general malaise
Treatment
  • Management approach
    • mainstay of treatment is supportive care 
  • Conservative
    • supportive care
      • indication
        • all patients
      • modalities
        • hydration
        • antipyretics
        • analgesics
        • steroid nasal spray may help with rhinorrhea
Complications
  • Bacterial superinfection
  • Post-viral tussis 
    • self-resolves

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 2 Ratings

Questions (3)
Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK
Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK
Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK
EXPERT COMMENTS (0)
Private Note