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A 72-year-old male with a past medical history significant for aortic stenosis and hypertension presents to the emergency department complaining of weakness for the past 3 weeks. He states that, apart from feeling weaker, he also has noted lightheadedness, pallor, and blood-streaked stools. The patient's vital signs are stable, and he is in no acute distress. Laboratory workup reveals that the patient is anemic. Fecal occult blood test is positive for bleeding. EGD was performed and did not reveal upper GI bleeding. Suspecting a lower GI bleed, a colonoscopy is performed after prepping the patient, and it is unremarkable. What would be an appropriate next step for localizing a lower GI bleed in this patient?
Nasogastric tube lavage
Technetium-99 labelled erythrocyte scintigraphy
Ultrasound of the abdomen
CT of the abdomen
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A 66-year-old man presents to the clinic with a 6-week history of bloody stools. He describes the blood as bright red wisps that float on the surface of the stool. He has no pain with bowel movements but notes on occasion he may strain. He does not endorse fatigue, fever, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss, or dyspnea. His last colonoscopy was 3 years prior to presentation and was benign. He has a medical history significant for hypertension that is well-controlled with lisinopril. He had an uncomplicated appendectomy when he was 23 years old. He has no family history of gastrointestinal malignancy. His temperature is 98.6°F (37.0°C), blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg, pulse is 76/min, and respirations are 16/min. On physical exam, the patient's abdomen is soft, non-distended, and non-tender with normal bowel sounds and without organomegaly or masses. The anus is patent without fissures, hemorrhoids, or skin tags. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
Computerized tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis
Increase fiber in diet
A 71-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department following a syncopal episode. Earlier in the day, the patient had multiple bowel movements that filled the toilet bowl with copious amounts of bright red blood. Minutes later, she felt dizzy and lightheaded and collapsed into her daughter's arms. The patient has a medical history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Her temperature is 99.0°F (37.2°C), blood pressure is 155/94 mmHg, pulse is 82/min, respirations are 15/min, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. The patient's exam is notable for fecal occult blood positivity on rectal exam; however, the patient is no longer having bloody bowel movements. The patient's lungs are clear to auscultation and her abdomen is soft and nontender. Labs are ordered as seen below.Hemoglobin: 7.1 g/dLHematocrit: 25%Leukocyte count: 5,300/mm^3 with normal differentialPlatelet count: 182,500/mm^3Two large bore IV's are placed and the patient is given normal saline. What is the best next step in management?
Fresh frozen plasma
Packed red blood cells
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