Updated: 7/1/2019

Mallory-Weiss Tear

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
3
0
0
Evidence
2
0
0
https://upload.medbullets.com/topic/120151/images/mallory weiss.jpg
Snapshot
  • A 53-year-old man with a history of gastroesophageal reflux and alcohol abuse is brought to the emergency room by his family due to acute chest and back pain. He endorses alcohol use throughout the day and has been feeling very nauseated with emesis throughout the night. On evaluation, his blood pressure is 105/72 mmHg and pulse is 92/min. He had 1 episode of emesis with bright red blood in the room.
Introduction
  • Clinical definition
    • longitudinal mucosal tear at the gastroesophageal junction or gastric cardia 
  • Epidemiology
    • up to 15% of all upper gastrointestinal bleeding
    • demographics
      • middle age
      • higher incidence in men
    • risk factors
      • alcoholism
      • hiatal hernia
      • eating disorder
      • food poisoning
  • Pathogenesis
    • rapid increase in intraabdominal pressure
      • most commonly from forceful and repeated emesis
      • straining
      • coughing
      • blunt abdominal trauma
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • hematemesis ranging from streaks to bright red blood
    • melena or hematochezia
    • epigastric pain
    • back pain
    • dizziness
  • Physical exam
    • tachycardia or hypotension
    • guaiac positive stool
Studies
  • Diagnostic testing
    • studies
      • esophagogastroduodenoscopy
        • visualizes tear and is diagnostic
Differential
  • Reflux esophagitis
    • distinguishing factor
      • irregularly shaped ulcerations
  • Boerhaave syndrome
    • distinguishing factor
      • transmural esophageal tear
Treatment
  • Management approach
    • initiate resuscitative measures to stabilize
      • fluid resuscitation and blood replacement for hemodynamic support
    • prompt diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy for definitive treatment
    • manage precipitating and exacerbating factors
      • proton pump inhibitors 
        • sufficient as monotherapy for tears that are not actively bleeding
      • antiemetics
    • monitor for complications
      • electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes for secondary myocardial ischemia
      • coagulation studies and complete blood count for coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia
  • First-line
    • endoscopic treatment
      • indicated for active bleeding only (90% are self-limited)
      • combined with epinephrine or sclerosant injection, thermal coagulation, banding, or hemoclips
  • Second-line
    • angiotherapy
      • indicated for failed endoscopic management
      • often with left gastric artery embolization
  • Third-line
    • surgery
      • indicated for failed endoscopic management and angiotherapy, rarely used
      • oversew mucosal tear
Complications
  • Rebleed
  • Myocardial ischemia or infarction
  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Death
 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 6 Ratings

Thank you for rating! Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine

The complexity of this topic is appropriate for?
How important is this topic for board examinations?
How important is this topic for clinical practice?
Questions (3)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK
Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK

(M2.GI.44) A 43-year-old male is brought to the emergency department after his son found him vomiting bright red blood. He is visibly intoxicated, and hospital records indicate a long history of alcohol substance abuse treated with antabuse (disulfiram). Vital signs include T 98.4, HR 89, BP 154/92, and RR 20. EGD is notable for mild esophagitis, and a longitudinal esophageal tear at the gastroesophageal junction, with no active bleeding. What is the next best course of action? Review Topic

QID: 102985
1

Cyanoacrylate injection and ligation with banding, IV fluid hydration, and NPO

0%

(0/0)

2

Conservative management with IV fluid hydration and observation

0%

(0/0)

3

Barium swallow to characterize the depth of mucosal involvement

0%

(0/0)

4

Esophageal manometry and impedance studies

0%

(0/0)

5

Calcium channel blockage and Botox injection of the lower esophageal sphincter

0%

(0/0)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2
ARTICLES (2)
Topic COMMENTS (2)
Private Note