Updated: 7/30/2019

Splenic Laceration / Rupture

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Snapshot
  • A 33-year-old man is brought to a trauma center after a motor vehicle accident. He reports a lot of pain in his chest and his abdomen. Physical exam shows multiple rib fractures on the left side. His vitals show that he is hypotensive even after several liters of crystalloid fluids. A FAST exam shows free fluid in the perisplenic space. He is taken urgently into the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy.
Introduction
  • Overview
    • splenic injury can result from trauma or nontraumatic causes
      • treatment is usually surgical in a hemodynamically unstable patient
  • Epidemiology
    • risk factors
      • diseases causing splenomegaly
        • infectious mononucleosis
        • dengue fever
        • leukemia/lymphoma
        • malaria
        • malignancies
      • penetrating trauma
      • blunt trauma
      • left-sided rib fracture
  • Pathogenesis
    • functions of the spleen
      • helps fight infection by producing antibodies and other key immune mediators
      • recycles old red blood cells
      • stores platelets and white blood cells
Presentation
  • History
    • trauma
  • Symptoms
    • common symptoms
      • location
        • left upper quadrant pain
        • left shoulder pain (Kehr sign)
        • diffuse abdominal pain
  • Physical exam
    • inspection
      • abdominal bruising
      • tachycardia
      • hypotension
      • shock
    • provocative tests
      • peritoneal signs
        • guarding
        • rigidity
Imaging
  • Abdominal ultrasound
    • FAST exam
      • focused abdominal sonography for trauma
    • indications
      • at bedside for all patients
    • findings
      • intra-abdominal free fluid
  • CT of abdomen
    • indications
      • hemodynamically stable patients with history of blunt abdominal trauma
      • to rule out splenic injury
    • findings
      • splenic bleeding
      • splenic injury
      • pseudoaneurysm
Studies
  • Serum labs
    • may have anemia
    • may have leukocytosis
Differential
  • Splenic abscess
    • key distinguishing factor
      • often in immunocompromised patients and IV drug users
      • fever, leukocytosis, and left upper quadrant pain
Treatment
  • Medical
    • close monitoring and serial abdominal exams
      • indications
        • hemodynamically stable patients
  • Surgical
    • exploratory laparotomy with possible splenectomy
      • indications
        • hemodynamically unstable
        • complete rupture
    • endovascular embolization
      • indications
        • hemodynamically stable
        • incomplete rupture
Complications
  • Infection
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Pancreatitis
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M2.GI.59) A 26-year-old man with no significant past medical history presents to the ED following a motor vehicle accident. Vital signs on presentation are T 99.0 F, BP 100/60 mmHg, HR 125 bpm, RR 16/min, SpO2 98% on room air. He complains of extreme abdominal pain worse in the left upper quadrant which has worsened over the past 30 minutes. Exam demonstrates abdominal wall rigidity, involuntary guarding, and tenderness on light percussion. Bedside sonography shows evidence for hemoperitoneum. Despite administering more intravenous fluids, repeat vitals are T 98.9 F, BP 82/50 mm hg, HR 180 bpm, RR 20/min, SpO2 97% on room air. Which of the following is the best next step? Review Topic

QID: 106394
1

Normal saline bolus and re-evaluation of hemodynamics after infusion

0%

(0/18)

2

CT abdomen and pelvis

6%

(1/18)

3

Morphine

0%

(0/18)

4

Abdominal plain film

0%

(0/18)

5

Exploratory laparotomy

89%

(16/18)

M2

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