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A 26-year-old man with no significant past medical history presents to the ED following a motor vehicle accident. Vital signs on presentation are T 99.0 F, BP 100/60 mmHg, HR 125 bpm, RR 16/min, SpO2 98% on room air. He complains of extreme abdominal pain worse in the left upper quadrant which has worsened over the past 30 minutes. Exam demonstrates abdominal wall rigidity, involuntary guarding, and tenderness on light percussion. Bedside sonography shows evidence for hemoperitoneum. Despite administering more intravenous fluids, repeat vitals are T 98.9 F, BP 82/50 mm hg, HR 180 bpm, RR 20/min, SpO2 97% on room air. Which of the following is the best next step?
Normal saline bolus and re-evaluation of hemodynamics after infusion
CT abdomen and pelvis
Abdominal plain film
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