Updated: 9/30/2019

Evaluating Diagnostic Tests

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Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV, NPV
  • 2x2 Table Sensitivity and SpecificityThese 4 measures describe how well diagnostic tests capture the true presence or absence of disease 
  • Sensitivity (SN)
    • % with disease who test positive
    • = a/(a+c) = TP/(TP+FN)
  • Specificity (SP)
    • % without disease who test negative
    • = d/(b+d) = TN/(FP+TN)
  • Positive predictive value (PPV) 
    • % positive test results that are true positives
    • = a/(a+b) = TP/(TP+FP)
  • Negative predictive value (NPV) 
    • % negative test results that are true negatives
    • = d/(c+d) = TN/(FN+TN)
  • Cut-off point may be adjusted to optimize sensitivity and specificity, which are inversely related (cut-off point with decreased sensitivity is associated with increased specificity and vice-versa)   
    • will also affect NPV and PPV 
      • i.e., decrease in sensitivity associated with decrease in NPV in the same population (due to higher false negative rates)
  • Sensitivity and specificity are intrinsic to the diagnostic test 
    • do not change with prevalence
    • PPV and NPV do change with prevalence 
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are a graphical depiction of a test's performance
    • Y axis: sensitivity
    • X axis: 1-specificity
    • The higher the curve, the better the test
    • This is quantified by the AUC (area under the curve); an AUC of 0.5 states that the test performs no better than chance (bad test!), whereas an AUC of 0.9 suggests a better-performing test
Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Attributable Risk
  • 2x2 TableThese measures describe the relationship between a risk factor and a disease
  • Odds Ratio (OR)
    • odds of having disease in expose group / odds of having disease in unexposed group
      • = ad/bc
  • Relative Risk (RR)
    • probability of getting disease in exposed group / probability of getting disease in unexposed group
      • = [a/(a+b)] / [c/(c+d)]
    • If RR = 1, there is no association between exposure and outcome 
  • Dose-reponse
    • increased level of exposure shows an increased relative risk of developing/odds ratio of having a disease
    • can be used in OR or RR to support causality 
  • Attributable Risk (AR)
    • risk in exposed group - risk in unexposed group
      • = a/(a+b) - c/(c+d)
 

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Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M2.OMB.18.1) A home drug screening test kit is currently being developed. The cut-off level is initially set at 4 mg/uL, which is associated with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 97%. How might the sensitivity and specificity of the test change if the cut-off level is changed to 2 mg/uL? Review Topic | Tested Concept

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Sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 99%

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Sensitivity = 92%, specificity = 97%

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Sensitivity = 95%, specificity = 98%

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Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 96%

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Sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 97%

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(M2.OMB.18.1) Health officials are considering a change be made to the interpretation of the tuberculin skin test that will change the cut-off for a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) from 10 mm to 15 mm for healthcare workers. Which of the following can be expected as a result of this change? Review Topic | Tested Concept

QID: 210446
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Decrease the sensitivity

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Decrease the specificity

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Increase the precision

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Increase the sensitivity

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No change to the sensitivity or specificity

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