Updated: 3/11/2020

Chorionic Villous Sampling / Amniocentesis

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  • Chorionic Villous Sampling
    • Introduction
      • sampling of chorionic villi for prenatal genetic testing or screening
        • based on the assumption that the placenta has the same genetic makeup as the developing fetus
    • Procedure
      • under ultrasound guideance, transcervical or transabdominal sampling of chorionic villi tissue is performed
    • Indications
      • typically done at 10-12 weeks gestation, following abnormal first-trimester screening
      • diagnostic testing of choice prior to 15 weeks of gestation
      • karyotyping
    • Complications
      • pregnancy loss rate is 1-2%
      • transverse limb abnormality
        • risk greatest when the test is performed at < 10 weeks gestation
      • rupture of membranes
      • chorioamnionitis
  • Amniocentesis
    • Introduction
      • sampling of amniotic fluid for prenatal genetic testing or screening
        • detection of free-floating fetal cells in the amniotic fluid
    • Procedure
      • under ultrasound guidance, amniotic fluid is extracted via transabdominal needle insertion
    • Indications
      • typically done at 14-18 weeks gestation, after abnormal second trimester screening
      • diagnostic testing of choice after 15 weeks gestation
      • karyotyping
      • diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, fetal lung maturity (lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio), and Rh incompatibility
      • treatment for polyhydramnios
    • Complications
      • pregnancy loss rate is 0.5-1.0%
      • rupture of membranes
      • chorioamnionitis

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