Please confirm topic selection

Are you sure you want to trigger topic in your Anconeus AI algorithm?

Please confirm action

You are done for today with this topic.

Would you like to start learning session with this topic items scheduled for future?

Updated: Jun 5 2020

Postpartum Hemorrhage

  • Snapshot
    • A 17 year-old G1P1 woman undergoes a spontaneous delivery of a 4200 g (9 lb 4 oz) newborn boy with Apgar scores of 8 and 9 at 1 and 5 minutes. She began experiencing the onset of regular contractions 8 hours before delivery. She was administered IV oxytocin for the last 5 hours of labor. After the placenta was delivered, she experienced postpartum hemorrhage with an estimated blood loss of 1200 mL.
  • Introduction
    • Overview
      • postpartum hemorrhage is defined as blood loss of ≥ 500 mL after vaginal delivery or > 1000mL of blood after cesarean delivery
        • leading cause of maternal mortality
  • Epidemiology
    • Incidence
      • occurs in approximately 5-13% of pregnancies in the US and industrialized countries
    • Pathophysiology
      • usually occurs immediately after the delivery of the placenta
      • potential etiologies
        • uterine atony
          • most common (90% of postpartum hemorrhages)
          • defined as a boggy and enlarged uterus
          • normally, the uterus contacts and compresses down on spiral arteries
            • uterine atony and failure of contraction can lead to rapid and severe hemorrhage
        • retained placental tissue
          • occurs when separation of placenta from uterine wall or expulsion of placenta is incomplete
            • may occur with placenta accreta
          • complete detachment and expulsion of the placenta allows uterine retraction and ↑ occlusion of blood vessels
        • trauma (i.e., lacerations)
          • uterine rupture
            • most common in patients with previous cesarean delivery scars
          • cervical laceration is most commonly associated with forceps delivery
          • vaginal sidewall laceration is associated with operative vaginal delivery
          • lower vaginal trauma may occur due to episiotomy
        • coagulation disorder
          • underlying bleeding disorders should be considered in woman with the following risk factors
            • history of menorrhagia
            • family history of bleeding disorders
            • personal history of severe bruising without known injury
            • epistaxis of > 10min duration
          • acquired coagulation abnormalities (i.e., DIC)
            • disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may be related to abruptio placentae (see illustration), HELLP syndrome, intrauterine fetal demise, and amniotic fluid embolism
        • uterine inversion
          • occurs when the uterine fundus is pulled inferiorly into the uterine cavity
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • heavy vaginal bleeding
      • signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock
        • tachycardia
        • quick, shallow breathing
        • weakness and fatigue
        • confusion
        • cool and clammy skin
  • Treatment
    • Medical
      • fluid resuscitation
      • blood transfusion
      • fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate infusions if abnormal coagulation test findings
      • manage underlying causes
        • uterine atony
          • bimanual uterine massage to stimulate contractions
          • oxytocin administration
    • Surgical
      • suturing of lacerations
      • uterine artery ligation
        • uterine arteries provide 90% of uterine blood flow
      • hysterectomy
        • curative for bleeding arising from the uterus, cervix, and vagina
  • Complications
    • Hemodynamic instability and organ failure
      • incidence
        • up to 60% of women wiht postpartum hemorrhage
      • treatment
        • fluids and blood transfusion
    • Sheehan syndrome (i.e., postpartum hypopituitarism)
      • pituitary gland is prone to infarction from hypovolemic shock due to severe postpartum hemorrhage
      • incidence
        • rare
      • treatment
        • supplementation of pituitary hormones
1 of 0
1 of 6
Private Note

Attach Treatment Poll
Treatment poll is required to gain more useful feedback from members.
Please enter Question Text
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options