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Updated: Dec 30 2021


  • Snapshot
    • A 27-year-old woman visits her physician a month before embarking on a safari trip to sub-Saharan Africa with her partner. Her doctor prescribes her doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis, and the patient takes the medication daily as instructed. A month after returning from her trip, the women discovers that she is pregnant. Her baby is born via vaginal delivery 9 months later and is found to have teeth discoloration, as seen in the image.
  • Introduction
    • Overview
      • teratogens are agents that can cause abnormal fetal development and birth defects
        • effects vary depending on timing of fetal exposure to the teratogen
          • weeks 1-3 of gestation
            • "all-or-none" effects
              • the embryo either dies or survives without any complications
          • weeks 3-8 of gestation
            • embryonic period
            • most susceptible time period due to organogenesis
          • week 8 of gestation until birth
            • growth and function of organs are affected
    • Teratogens
      Substance Abuse
      TeratogenEffects on Fetus
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Low birth weight
      • Preterm birth
      • Intrauterine growth retristriction
      • Placental abruption
      • Low birth weight
      • Preterm labor
      • Placental problems
      • Sudden infant death syndrome
      • ADHD
      ACE inhibitors (i.e.,lisinopril)
      • Renal damage
        • renal dysplasia
      Alkylating agents (i.e.,cyclophosphamide)
      • Absence of digits
      • Cleft palate
      • Renal agenesis
      Aminoglycosides (i.e.,gentamicin)
      • Ototoxicity
      Antiepileptic drugs (i.e.,phenytoin)
      • Neural tube defects
      • Cardiac defects
      • Cleft lip and palate
      • Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
      • Congenital cervical, ovarian, and uterine abnormalities
      Folate antagonists (i.e.,methotrexate)
      • Neural tube defects
        • meningomyelocele
      • Multiple severe birth defects (i.e.,cleft palate, microphthalmia, and congenital heart defects)
      • Ebstein anomaly
      • Aplasia cutis congenita
      Tetracyclines (i.e., doxycycline)
      • Discolored teeth
      • Inhibited bone growth
      • Limb defects
      • Bone deformities
      • Fetal hemorrhage
      • Abortion
      • Ophthalmologic abnormalities
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