Updated: 1/28/2019

Adenomyosis

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Questions
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Snapshot
  • A 43-year-old woman who is Gravida 3, Para 2 and Aborta 1, presents with increasing, worsening pain with menses, along with progressively heavier menstrual bleeding. Pelvic examination reveals a diffusely enlarged, tender, and boggy uterus. Serum β-hCG is negative. Transvaginal sonogram showed an enlarged uterus with a thickened posterior myometrium (arrows).
Overview

Introduction
  • Invasion of endometrial glands into uterine myometrium
  • Pathogenesis
    • largely unknown
  • Epidemiology
    • women ages 35-50
  • Associated conditions
    • often coexists with other uterine diseases
      • leiomyomas
      • endometriosis
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • dysmenorrhea
    • menorrhagia
    • chronic pelvic pain
  • Physical exam
    • uterus is
      • uniformly smooth
      • large
      • soft
      • globular
      • boggy
      • tender
Evaluation
  • Initial test to order in patient with enlarged uterus
    • β-hCG
  • Diagnosis is based on clinical history and exam
  • Imaging
    • sonogram
      • sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 81%
    • MRI (T2-weighted)
      • sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 89%
      • best used when trying to exclude malignant neoplasia
    • both modalities show diffusely enlarged uterus with some cystic areas within myometrium
  • Definitive diagnosis
    • hysterectomy and histology
Differential Diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma
  • Pregnancy
  • Endometrial polyp
Treatment
  • Symptomatic treatment for dysmenorrhea
    • levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraception
    • aromatase inhibitors
  • When fertility is no longer needed or failure of medical therapy
    • hysterectomy
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • Controversial evidence linking adenomyosis with infertility
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M2.GN.4774) A 42-year-old G3P3003 presents to her gynecologist for an annual visit. She complains of urinary incontinence when jogging since the birth of her last child three years ago. Her periods are regular every 30 days. The patient also has cramping that is worse before and during her period but always present at baseline. She describes a feeling of heaviness in her pelvis that is exacerbated by standing for several hours at her job as a cashier. The patient has had two spontaneous vaginal deliveries, one caesarean section, and currently uses condoms for contraception. She is obese and smokes a pack of cigarettes a day. Her mother died of breast cancer at age 69, and her aunt is undergoing treatment for endometrial cancer. The patient’s temperature is 98.6°F (37.0°C), pulse is 70/min, blood pressure is 142/81 mmHg, and respirations are 13/min. Pelvic exam is notable for a uterine fundus palpated just above the pubic symphysis and a boggy, smooth texture to the uterus. There is no tenderness or mass in the adnexa, and no uterosacral nodularity is noted. Which of the following is a classic pathological feature of this patient’s most likely diagnosis? Review Topic

QID: 109118
1

Presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus

0%

(0/0)

2

Presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium

0%

(0/0)

3

Focal hyperplasia of the myometrium

0%

(0/0)

4

Nuclear atypia of endometrial cells

0%

(0/0)

5

No pathognomonic findings expected

0%

(0/0)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

(M2.GN.4766) A 44-year-old G2P2 African American woman presents to her gynecologist for dysmenorrhea. She reports that for the past few months, she has been having severe pain during her menses. She also endorses menstrual bleeding that has been heavier than usual. The patient reports that her cycles are regular and occur every 30 days, and she denies both dyspareunia and spotting between her periods. Her last menstrual period was two weeks ago. In terms of her obstetric history, the patient had two uncomplicated pregnancies, and she had no difficulty becoming pregnant. She has never had an abnormal pap smear. Her past medical history is otherwise significant for hyperlipidemia and asthma. On physical exam, the patient’s uterus is tender, soft, and enlarged to the size of a pregnant uterus at 10 weeks of gestation. She is non-tender during vaginal exam, without cervical motion tenderness or adnexal masses. Her BMI is 24 kg/m2. A urine pregnancy test is negative.

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis for this patient? Review Topic

QID: 109083
1

Hyperplastic overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma

17%

(3/18)

2

Malignant invasion of endometrial cells into uterine myometrium

0%

(0/18)

3

Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in uterine myometrium

72%

(13/18)

4

Presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus

0%

(0/18)

5

Benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus

11%

(2/18)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3
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