Updated: 8/13/2019

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
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Evidence
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Snapshot
  • A 21-year-old college male student presents to your office on the insistence of his parents for worsening grades. He describes missing classes and deadlines as a result of an "embarrassing habit" in which he is convinced he has left his apartment unlocked. He details that the only way he knows that it's locked is to unlock the door. He repeats this process approximately 30 times every time he must leave the apartment, which he finds very distressing. He denies any family history of mental health problems. He denies substance use. The student agrees to intensive cognitive behavioral therapy sessions with the option to use medical therapy if necessary.
Introduction
  • Clinical definition  
    • two components
      • obsessions
        • recurring, intrusive thoughts that cause severe distress and impairment
      • compulsions
        • performance of repetitive actions (rituals) in an attempt to neutralize the obsessions
          • e.g., hand washing, checking
    • primary goal is to not lose control
    • disorder is ego-dystonic
      • behavior inconsistent with one's own beliefs and attitudes
        • separates OCD from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  • Associated conditions
    • Tourette's disorder 
      • can treat with risperidone 
Evaluation
  • Obsessions and/or compulsions
    • must be present
    • must be time-consuming (e.g. take > 1 hour per day) or cause clinically significant distress or social impairment
    • are not due to medical or coexisting mental health condition
Treatment
  • First line: psychotherapy
    • cognitive behavioral therapy 
  • Pharmacotherapy options
    • SSRIs 
      • 12-16 week trials
      • higher doses compared to those used in depression
    • clomipramine 
    • augmentation therapy with antipsychotics 
 

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M2.PY.4682) A 35-year-old woman presents to clinic in emotional distress. She states she has been unhappy for the past couple of months and is having problems with her sleep and appetite. Additionally, she reports significant anxiety regarding thoughts of dirtiness around the house. She states that she cleans all of the doorknobs 5-10 times per day and that, despite her actions, the stress related to cleaning is becoming worse. What is this patient's diagnosis? Review Topic

QID: 107299
1

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

0%

(0/0)

2

Tic disorder

0%

(0/0)

3

Panic Disorder (PD)

0%

(0/0)

4

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

0%

(0/0)

5

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)

0%

(0/0)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 1

(M2.PY.100) An 11-year-old girl is brought into the clinic by her parents, who are distraught over her behavior. They state that over the past several months she has started to act oddly, combing the hair of her toy dolls for hours without stopping and repetitively counting her steps in the house. She is often brought to tears when confronted about these behaviors. The patient has no past medical history. When questioned about family history, the mother states she has needed close medical follow-up in the past, but declines to elaborate. The patient's vital signs are all within normal limits. On physical exam the patient is a well nourished 11-year-old girl in no acute distress. She has occasional motor tics, but the remainder of the exam is benign. What is the diagnosis in this patient? Review Topic

QID: 105770
1

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

0%

(0/0)

2

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

0%

(0/0)

3

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

0%

(0/0)

4

Tourette's syndrome

0%

(0/0)

5

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

0%

(0/0)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3

(M2.PY.77) An 11-year-old boy is brought to the doctor by his father because his father is worried about the boy's performance in school and his lack of a social life. His father is also worried about the ongoing bullying his son is experiencing due to swearing outbursts the boy has exhibited for several years. During these outbursts, the boy contorts his face, blinks repeatedly, and grunts. His father is worried that the bullying will worsen and would like to see if there is a medication that can help his son. Which of the following medications is most likely to be beneficial? Review Topic

QID: 106888
1

Aripiprazole

0%

(0/18)

2

Risperidone

67%

(12/18)

3

Lamotrigine

11%

(2/18)

4

Clonazepam

11%

(2/18)

5

Lithium

0%

(0/18)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2
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