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A 27-year-old man with an unknown past medical history is brought to the emergency department acutely intoxicated. The patient was found passed out in a park covered in vomit and urine. His temperature is 99.0°F (37.2°C), blood pressure is 107/68 mm Hg, pulse is 120/min, respiratory rate is 13/min, and oxygen saturation is 95% on room air. Physical exam is notable for wheezing in all lung fields without any crackles. The patient is started on 2L/min nasal cannula oxygen and IV fluids. His laboratory values are notable for an AST of 200 U/L and an ALT of 100 U/L. An initial chest radiograph is unremarkable. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this patient's pulmonary symptoms?
Clot in pulmonary vasculature
Elastic tissue destruction
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A 55-year-old female patient comes to your office complaining of white spots on her tongue. She reports that she first noticed them about one week ago. She denies pain or difficulty swallowing. Her past medical history is significant for asthma, hepatitis C, and heroin abuse. She had previously been homeless and only recently went to the doctor one month ago for the first time in over five years. At that time, her primary care physician prescribed sofosbuvir, an albuterol inhaler, and daily inhaled fluticasone, which she has been using as directed. She is sexually active with one male partner. Her last HIV test was negative, and she does not have a history of sexually transmitted diseases. She denies current alcohol or intravenous drug use. She smokes a pack a day of cigarettes and reports she has been smoking since she was 16. On physical examination, you note lesions on her oral mucosa that are easily scraped off, as shown in Figure A.Which of the following is the best treatment for this patient’s most likely diagnosis?
A six-year-old boy with a history of asthma currently uses an albuterol inhaler as needed to manage his asthma symptoms. His mother brings him into your office because she feels she has had to increase the patient’s use of his inhaler to four times per week for the past month. She also reports that he has woken up three times during the night from his symptoms this month. The boy reports that he is upset because he can’t always keep up with his friends in the playground. His past medical history is significant for allergic rhinitis. The patient’s temperature is 98°F (36.6°C), blood pressure is 110/70 mmHg, pulse is 88/min, and respirations are 18/min with an oxygen saturation of 98% O2 on room air. Auscultation of his lungs reveals bilateral late expiratory wheezes. What changes should be made to his current asthma treatment regimen?
Maintain current therapy
Add cromolyn prior to exercise
Add fluticasone daily
Add salmeterol twice daily
Add zileuton twice daily
A 26-year-old male comes into your clinic complaining of worsening asthma symptoms. He reports that when he was first diagnosed with asthma, he experienced shortness of breath and chest tightness around twice a month. Then last month he began to get short of breath three times a week. He uses his albuterol inhaler during these episodes with temporary improvement of his symptoms. He denies nighttime awakenings due to his symptoms, but he does complain that his symptoms are interfering with his marathon training. His past medical history is significant for type I diabetes. His current medications include insulin and his albuterol inhaler. When asked about over-the-counter medications, he reports that he takes a multivitamin and aspirin, which he has been using for muscle soreness associated with his increased training schedule. A review of systems is also notable for headaches, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea and anosmia. The patient’s temperature is 99°F (37.2°C), blood pressure is 120/78 mmHg, pulse is 84/min, and respirations are 14/min with an oxygen saturation of 98% O2 on room air. On physical exam, you note bilateral expiratory wheezing and lesions within the nasal cavity, shown in Figure A.Which of the following is the best initial treatment for this patient’s symptoms?
A 48-year-old male with a history of rhinitis presents to the emergency department with complaints of shortness of breath and wheezing over the past 2 days. He reports bilateral knee pain over the past month for which he recently began taking naproxen 1 week ago. Physical examination is significant for a nasal polyp and disappearance of bilateral radial pulses on deep inspiration. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's physical examination findings?
Interstitial lung fibrosis