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Disease Prevention: Individual Level
  • 1° (Primary prevention) 
    • prevent disease occurrence
      • e.g., vaccination
  • 2° (Secondary prevention) 
    • early detection of disease to either prevent or decrease morbidity from disease before onset of symptoms
      • e.g., colonoscopy
  • 3° (Tertiary prevention) 
    • reduce morbidity from disease after symptom onset
      • e.g., medication
  • 4° (Quaternary prevention) 
    • reducing harm by identifying patients who are at risk for unnecessary treatment, overmedicalisation, harm from new interventions, and suggest new interventions which are ethically acceptable
      • e.g., not spending money on things that do not work or recommendation of preventive measures of proven efficacy
Disease Prevention: Community Level
  • Also known as primordial prevention
  • Prevention at the community level involves promoting the health of entire populations and avoiding health risks altogether 
  • Social and economic policy-making
    • cigarette, soda, or other taxes
    • smoke-free cities, buildings, and restaurants
    • investments in public transportation and schools
  • Health education
    • public health campaigns surrounding smoking, alcohol, diet, and exercise
  • Environmental interventions
    • promoting green space
    • reducing pollution
  • Addressing health care disparities

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