Updated: 8/17/2019

Types of Studies

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Case-Control Study
  • Observational (by definition)
  • Retrospective (almost always)
  • Compares the odds of being exposed between patients with disease and patients without the disease 
    • e.g. Patients with cirrhosis are more likely to have been exposed to heavy alcohol use
  • Odds Ratio (OR) is measure of disease association 
    • OR = (a/b) / (c/d) = ad/bc  
Cohort Study
  • Observational (by definition)
    • Can be either prospective or retrospective 
      • prospective follows patients forwards in time 
  • Compares a group with a given risk factor to a group without the risk factor to see if there is an increased likelihood of developing disease 
    • e.g. Patients who drink alcohol are more likely to get cirrhosis
  • Relative Risk (RR) is measure of disease association
    • asks, "How much more likely are you to get cirrhosis if you drink alcohol?"
    • RR = [a/(a+b)] / [c/(c+d)]
Cross-Sectional Study
  • Observational
  • Determines disease status and exposure/risk factor status at the same point in time 
    • can show an association but not causality
  • measures disease prevalence 

Factorial design study 

  • Randomizes patients into different interventions with 2 or more variables being studied in each intervention 
Crossover Study
  • Participants alternate receiving intervention and placebo
  • Participants act as own controls 
    • improves power and precision of the study
    • all patients receive an intervention
Twin concordance study
  • Compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins to measure disease heritability
Adoption study
  • Compares siblings raised by biologic and adoptive parents to measure influence of environmental vs inherited factors
Meta-Analysis
  • Combines data from multiple studies 
    • better precision than individual studies
    • improves the generalizability of study findings
    • considered to be the highest level of clinical evidence
    • limited by:
      • quality of individual studies
      • bias in study selection
Case series
  • Report on observations of patients with known exposure or disease
  • Does not have comparison group so cannot perform hypothesis testing
 

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(OMB11.1) A recent study attempted to analyze whether increased "patient satisfaction" driven healthcare resulted in increased hospitalization. Using this patient population, the sociodemographics, health status, and hospital use were assessed. Next year, patient satisfaction with health care providers was assessed using 5 items from the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey. Which of the following best describes this study design? Review Topic

QID: 210429
1

Cross-sectional study

0%

(0/3)

2

Prospective case-control

0%

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3

Prospective cohort

67%

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4

Retrospective case-control

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5

Retrospective cohort

33%

(1/3)

M2

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SUBMIT RESPONSE 3

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(OMB11.92) A physician attempts to study cirrhosis in his state. Using a registry of admitted patients over the last 10 years at the local hospital, he isolates all patients who have been diagnosed with cirrhosis. Subsequently, he contacts this group of patients, asking them to complete a survey assessing their prior exposure to alcohol use, intravenous drug abuse, blood transfusions, personal history of cancer, and other medical comorbidities. An identical survey is given to an equal number of patients in the registry who do not carry a prior diagnosis of cirrhosis. Which of the following is the study design utilized by this physician? Review Topic

QID: 210428
1

Case-control study

20%

(3/15)

2

Cohort study

0%

(0/15)

3

Cross-sectional study

60%

(9/15)

4

Meta-analysis

13%

(2/15)

5

Randomized controlled trial

0%

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M2

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