Updated: 11/30/2019

Crush Syndrome

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Snapshot
  • A 60-year-old man presents to the emergency room after an earthquake. His right leg had been trapped under his truck for an hour. After he was extracted, he was rushed to the emergency room, where aggressive fluid hydration was started. There is no penetrating injury. On physical exam, there is a large ecchymosis and abrasion on the right thigh. The right thigh is severely tender to palpation and the muscles feel tense. Laboratory evaluation reveals hyperkalemia and significantly elevated creatine kinase. He is immediately started on intravenous fluids and calcium gluconate.
Introduction
  • Clinical definition
    • syndrome of shock, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure after prolonged crush injury
  • Epidemiology
    • risk factors
      • natural disasters
        • e.g., earthquakes
      • trauma
      • cave-ins
  • Pathogenesis
    • ischemia causes breakdown of skeletal muscle and rhabdomyolysis, releasing myoglobin, phosphorous, and potassium from cells
    • reperfusion injury releases the products of muscle breakdown into the system
    • acute tubular necrosis is caused by myoglobin, a nephrotoxic metabolite
  • Associated conditions
    • rhabdomyolysis
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • pain from the crushed body part
  • Physical exam
    • abrasions, erythema, and ecchymosis
    • monitor for compartment syndrome with 6 P’s
      • Pulselessness
      • Pallor
      • Pain
      • Paresthesias
      • Poikilothermia
      • Paralysis
Imaging
  • Radiography
    • indication
      • to assess for fractures and other damage
Studies
  • Labs
    • ↑ potassium
    • ↑ creatine
    • ↑ creatine kinase
    • ↑ phosphorous
  • Urine
    • myoglobinuria
  • Electrodiagnostic
    • monitor for electrolyte abnormalities that may cause cardiac arrhythmias
  • Making the diagnosis
    • based on clinical presentation and laboratory studies
Differential
  • Penetrating injury   
    • distinguishing factor
      • object is seen penetrating a body part
Treatment
  • Management approach
    • management is based on the specific patient scenario
    • patients are often treated with aggressive fluid hydration to protect the kidneys
  • Medical
    • intravenous fluids
      • indications
        • prevent hypotension for all patients
        • maintain consistent urinary output
    • calcium gluconate
      • indication
        • iLn the case of hyperkalemia
    • sodium bicarbonate
      • indication
        • prevent myoglobin and uric acid deposition in kidneys
Complications
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Hyperkalemia
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M2.OR.4690) A 25-year-old male is brought into the emergency department by emergency medical services. The patient has a history of bipolar disease complicated by polysubstance use. He was found down in his apartment at the bottom of a staircase lying on his left arm. He was last seen several hours earlier by his roommate. He is disoriented and unable to answer any questions, but is breathing on his own. His vitals are HR 55, T 96.5, RR 18, BP 110/75. You decide to obtain an EKG as shown in Figure 1. What is the next best step in the treatment of this patient? Review Topic | Tested Concept

QID: 107585
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Calcium gluconate

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(M2.OR.4686) A 45-year-old male is brought into the emergency department by emergency medical services. The patient has a history of substance abuse and was found down in his apartment lying on his right arm. He was last seen 24 hours earlier by his mother who lives in the same building. He is disoriented and unable to answer any questions. His vitals are HR 48, T 97.6, RR 18, BP 100/75. You decide to obtain an EKG as shown in Figure 1. Which of the following is most likely the cause of this patient's EKG results? Review Topic | Tested Concept

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Hyperkalemia

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