4.8 of 8 Ratings
A 28-year-old male presents to the emergency department with chest pain. He reports that one hour ago he was climbing the stairs in his home when he suddenly developed excruciating chest pain. He describes the pain as ripping and radiating to the back. The patient’s past medical history is significant for a heart murmur that is being followed by his outpatient cardiologist. He takes no medications. The patient works as a carpenter and reports being monogamous with his wife. He denies any history of intravenous drug use or recent travel. In the emergency department, the patient’s temperature is 99.4°F (37.4°C), blood pressure is 164/96 mmHg, pulse is 121/min, and respirations are 14/min. On physical exam, the patient appears to be in moderate distress and is clutching his chest. He is tall and has joint hypermobility. His breath sounds are equal and full bilaterally and has weak distal pulses. Which of the following is most likely to be found in this patient?
Holosystolic, high-pitched blowing murmur at the lower left sternal border
Late systolic crescendo murmur at the apex with mid-systolic click
Mid-diastolic murmur at the apex with opening snap
Mid-diastolic murmur at the left lower sternal border
Systolic ejection murmur at the right second intercostal space
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A 36-year-old male is brought to the emergency department by fire and rescue after being found down in his apartment by his wife. His wife reports that the patient had been complaining of chest pain for the last few hours but refused to go to the hospital. She went to the grocery store for about half an hour and found her husband unresponsive on the ground when she returned home. The patient’s wife reports that his past medical history is significant for a “heart murmur” and that the patient’s father died at age 32 for unknown reasons. In the trauma bay, the patient’s temperature is 98.8°F (37.1°C), blood pressure is 88/41 mmHg, pulse is 116/min, and respirations are 12/min. On physical exam, the patient has a Glascow Coma Score (GCS) of 7. He has a tall stature with long limbs and long, slender fingers. He is also noted to have a pectus deformity. On cardiac exam, the patient has a diastolic decrescendo murmur at the left third intercostal space. He has weak brachial and femoral pulses. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of this patient’s presentation?
Spontaneous rupture of the aorta
Spontaneous rupture of the mitral chordae tendinae
Spontaneous separation in the arterial wall