Updated: 3/17/2019

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
1
0
0
Snapshot
  • A 29-year-old woman presents to the emergency room with a high fever and cough. She has been feeling fatigued for a year prior to presentation. Chest radiography reveals a lower lobe pneumonia. Labs reveal Hb 6.7 g/dL, leukocyte count of 5,000/mm3, platelets of 100,000/mm3,high reticulocyte count, and high LDH. Coombs test was negative. Concerned with the apparent intravascular hemolysis, a bone marrow biopsy showed hypercellularity and normal cytogenetics. Flow cytometry was positive for CD55/CD59-negative RBCs.
Introduction

  • Clonal stem cell defect from mutation in hematopoietic stem cell
  • Pathogenesis
    • mutation in PIGA gene
    • defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) and CD59 on RBC membrane
      • these protect RBC from complement
      • DAF inhibits C3 convertase
    • complement-mediated destruction of RBCs
    • activation of platelets and WBCs
  • "PNH Thrombosis"
    • Pancytopenia
    • Nocturnal build up of dark urine
    • Coombs negative Hemolytic anemia (complement-mediated)
    • venous Thrombosis
      • from pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state formed by complement activation
  • May cause
    • aplastic anemia
    • myelodysplasia
    • acute leukemia
  • Diagnosis often made during pregnancy
Presentation
  • Symptoms/physical exam
    • episodic dark urine with first urine of the day
      • caused by hemoglobin
    • chronic intravascular hemolytic anemia: pallor, fatigue, tachycardia, jaundice, and gross hematuria
    • acute hemolytic episodes from activators of complement
      • surgery
      • infection
      • stress
      • alcohol
    • thrombocytopenia: mucosal bleeding, petechiae, and ecchymoses
    • leukemia: infections
    • thrombosis
      • abdominal pain, fever, and rectal bleeding (mesenteric vein thrombosis)
      • headache, vomiting, and seizures (cerebral venous sinous thrombosis)
      • fever, jaundice, hepatomegaly (Budd-Chiari syndrome)
    • renal impairment
Evaluation
  • Flow cytometry – most accurate test 
    • CD55/59-negative RBCs
  • Labs
    • anemia
    • thrombocytopenia
    • leukopenia
Differential Diagnosis
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Myelodysplasia
Treatment
  • Best initial therapy – eculizumab (or ravulizumab)
    • inactivates C5 in complement pathway
    • decreases red cell destruction
    • complement inhibitor
    • must vaccinate all against Neisseria due to increased risk
  • Best curative therapy – allogeneic bone marrow transplant
  • Supportive therapy
    • folic acid
    • transfusions as needed
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • Prognosis
    • improved with use of eculizumab
  • Complications
    • renal insufficiency
    • thromboembolism
    • 5% develop myelodysplasia
    • 2.5% develop acute leukemias
 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 5 Ratings

Thank you for rating! Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine

The complexity of this topic is appropriate for?
How important is this topic for board examinations?
How important is this topic for clinical practice?
Questions (1)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK
Topic COMMENTS (5)
Private Note