In patients without significant urologic symptoms, microscopic hematuria is occasionally detected on routine urinalysis. At present, routine screening of all adults for microscopic hematuria with dipstick testing is not recommended because of the intermittent occurrence of this finding and the low incidence of significant associated urologic disease. However, once asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is discovered, its cause should be investigated with a thorough medical history (including a review of current medications) and a focused physical examination. Laboratory and imaging studies, such as intravenous pyelography, renal ultrasonography or retrograde pyelography, may be required to determine the degree and location of the associated disease process. Cystourethroscopy is performed to complete the evaluation of the lower urinary tract. Microscopic hematuria associated with anticoagulation therapy is frequently precipitated by significant urologic pathology and therefore requires prompt evaluation.





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