Updated: 8/11/2019

Allergic Rhinitis

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
4
0
0
Evidence
3
0
0
Snapshot
  • A 15-year-old boy presents with clear fluid discharge from his nose for 2 days duration. His also reports having episodes of sneezing, feelings of congestion, and a cough. His symptoms only occuring during the spring months and finds it difficult to walk outside without exacerbating his symptoms. On nasal exam, the mucosa and turbinates appear edematous. 
Introduction
  • Definition
    • inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal passages
  • Rhinitis types
    • allergic rhinitis
    • nonallergic rhinitis
      • etiologies include
        • vasomotor
        • hormonal
        • drug-induced
        • occupational (secondary to irritant exposure)
        • pregnancy
  • Epidemiology
    • incidence
      • allergic rhinitis is the most common form of rhinitis
  • Etiology
    • aeroallergens 
  • Pathogenesis
    • aeroallergens leads to an IgE type I hypersensitivity and mast cell degranulation
  • Associated conditions
    • sinusitis
    • asthma
    • atopic dermatitis
    • allergic conjunctivitis
    • nasal polyps
Presentations
  • Symptoms
    • sneezing
    • congestion
    • rhinorrhea
    • nasal itching
Studies
  • Making the diagnosis
    • this is a clinical diagnosis
  • Allergic skin testing
    • confirms that the patients has an allergy to the aeroallergen
      • is not necessary for the diagnosis
Differential
  • Nonallergic rhinitis 
    • drug-induced rhinitis
      • differentiating factors
        • onset after starting the inciting medication (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors)
    • occupational rhinitis
      • differentiating factors
        • caused by allergens or irritants in the workplace
    • atrophic rhinitis
      • differentiating factors
        • seen in older patients who had many sinus and nasal surgeries
Treatment
  • Conservative
    • allergen avoidance
      • indication
        • a component of the management of rhinitis
  • Medical
    • glucocorticoid nasal sprays 
      • indication
        • first-line treatment for persistent or moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis
      • medications
        • budesonide
        • fluticasone
Complications
  • Respiratory tract infections
 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 3 Ratings

Thank you for rating! Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine

The complexity of this topic is appropriate for?
How important is this topic for board examinations?
How important is this topic for clinical practice?
Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK

(M2.ET.4867) A 25-year-old woman presents to the urgent care clinic for cough for the past five days. She recently moved to the area and has not yet established a primary care doctor. She has noticed worsening runny nose with congestion, sneezing, and tearing over the past few days. She initially thought that it was just due to dust from moving boxes into her new apartment, but her symptoms did not improve after cleaning her belongings and vacuuming her floor. She feels some relief after splashing her face with cold water, but her symptoms recur within ten minutes. She has no pets and does not take any medications. Her physical exam reveals examples of findings shown in Figures A-C. No rales or wheezes are appreciated on lung auscultation, but bronchial breath sounds are heard at the bases. The patient states that she will need to drive back home after this visit. What is the best initial step in management? Review Topic

QID: 109575
FIGURES:
1

Oral loratadine

49%

(18/37)

2

Intranasal corticosteroids

46%

(17/37)

3

Intravenous diphenhydramine

0%

(0/37)

4

Sublingual oseltamivir

3%

(1/37)

5

Oral montelukast

3%

(1/37)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

(M2.ET.4689) A 20-year-old female presents to your clinic for evaluation. She complain of months of daily rhinorrhea, which she describes as watery and clear, as well as nasal congestion bilaterally. In addition, she reports frequent watery and itchy eyes, as well as daily sneezing. Her temperature is 100.1 deg F (37.8 deg C), blood pressure is 120/70 mmHg, pulse is 70/min, and respirations are 15/min. On exam, you note edematous, boggy turbinates with watery rhinorrhea. Which of the following is a treatment for the patient’s condition? Review Topic

QID: 107564
1

Intravenous penicillin

0%

(0/2)

2

Oral amoxicillin

0%

(0/2)

3

Oral acetaminophen

0%

(0/2)

4

Intranasal fluticasone

100%

(2/2)

5

Intravenous vancomycin

0%

(0/2)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 4

(M3.ET.13) A 35-year-old woman presents to an outpatient clinic during winter for persistant rhinorrhea. She states it is persistent and seems to be worse when she goes outside. Otherwise, she states she is generally healthy and only has a history of constipation. Her temperature is 98.7°F (37.1°C), blood pressure is 144/91 mmHg, pulse is 82/min, respirations are 14/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. Nasal sputum cytology reveals eosinophilia and boggy turbinates. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? Review Topic

QID: 102612
1

Cold weather

0%

(0/3)

2

Coronavirus

0%

(0/3)

3

Environmental allergen

100%

(3/3)

4

Staphylococcus aureus

0%

(0/3)

5

Streptococcus pneumonia

0%

(0/3)

M2

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3
ARTICLES (3)
Topic COMMENTS (3)
Private Note