Updated: 8/8/2019

Meniere Disease

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
4
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Evidence
4
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Snapshot
  • A 26-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician for severe dizziness spells. Her dizziness is described as the room is spinning, and it typically lasts a few minutes. Her symptoms are associated with nausea and "ear ringing." At times she feels like her left ear has decreased hearing. She denies any lightheadedness or palpitations. Physical examination is unremarkable. She is referred for audiometry testing and was urged to decrease her salt and caffeine intake. She is prescribed meclizine for symptomatic improvement.
Introduction
  • Overview
    • an inner ear disorder leading to paroxysmal vertigo, tinnitus, and sensorineural hearing loss
  • Epidemiology
    • demographics
      • 20-40 years of age
    • location
      • inner ear labyrinthine system
    • risk factors
      • family history
  • Pathophysiology
    • excessive fluid build-up in the endolymphatic system for unclear reasons
  • Prognosis
    • most patients have gradual hearing loss
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • episodic vertigo 
      • rotatory spinning or rocking sensation
    • sensorineural hearing loss (typically fluctuating) 
    • tinnitus
      • typically low pitch
    • aural fullness
  • Physical exam
    • none are specific for Meniere disease
Studies
  • Audiometry 
    • indication
      • performed in all patients with Meniere disease
    • findings
      • low frequency sensory hearing loss
      • low and high frequency sensory hearing loss
      • normal hearing in mid frequency sounds
  • Vestibular testing
    • indication
      • performed in patients when determining if the patient is a candidate for intervention
      • to determine if there is bilateral disease
    • modalities
      • electronystagmography (ENG)
      • rotary chair testing
      • computerized dynamic posturography
Differential
  • Vestibular schwannoma
    • differentiating factors
      • rarely have vertigo
      • asymmetric hearing loss
  • Migraine-associated vertigo
    • differentiating factors
      • headache is usually present with migraine
Treatment
  • Conservative and lifestyle
    • dietary modification
      • indications
        • part of management of Meniere disease
      • modalities
        • decreased salt, coffeine, monosodium glutamate (MSG), stress, and alcohol intake 
  • Medical and pharmacologic
    • vestibular suppressants
      • indications
        • used in acute vertigo episodes
      • medications
        • benzodiazepines
        • antihistamines (e.g., meclizine)
        • antiemetics
          • to manage associated nausea and vomiting
    • diuretic therapy
      • indications
        • to decrease endolymphathic hydrops that is not responsive to dietary modification
      • medications
        • hydrochlorothiazide
        • acetazolamide
Complications
  • Falls leading to head injury
  • Sensorineural hearing loss
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(OMB11.1) A 56-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician for dizziness. She says that her symptoms began approximately 1 month prior to presentation and are associated with nausea and ringing of the ears. She describes her dizziness as a spinning sensation that has a start and end and lasts approximately 25 minutes. This dizziness is severe enough that she cannot walk or stand. Her symptoms are fluctuating, and she denies any tunnel vision or feelings of fainting. However, she has abruptly fallen to the ground in the past and denied losing consciousness. Medical history is significant for a migraine with aura treated with zolmitriptan, type 2 diabetes managed with metformin, and hypertension managed with lisinopril. Her blood pressure is 125/75 mmHg, pulse is 88/min, and respirations are 16/min. On physical exam, when words are whispered into her right ear, she is unable to repeat the whispered words aloud; however, this is normal in the left ear. Air conduction is greater than bone conduction with Rinne testing, and the sound of the tuning fork is loudest in the left ear on Weber testing. Which of the following is most likely the diagnosis? Review Topic

QID: 210758
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

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Meniere disease

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Migraine

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Transient ischemic attack

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5

Vestibular neuritis

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(M2.ET.4694) A 45-year-old male presents to his primary care physician for complaints of dizziness. The patient reports he experiences room-spinning dizziness lasting several hours at a time, approximately 2-3 times a month, starting 3 months ago. Upon questioning, the patient also reports right sided diminished hearing, tinnitus, and a sensation of ear fullness. Her temperature is 99 deg F (37.2 deg C), pulse 70/min, respirations 12, blood pressure 130 mmHg/85 mmHg, SpO2 99%. You decide to order an audiometric evaluation. What is the most likely finding of the audiogram? Review Topic

QID: 107749
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Low frequency sensorineural hearing loss

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High frequency sensorineural hearing loss

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Low frequency conductive hearing loss

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High frequency conductive hearing loss

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Normal audiogram

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(M3.ET.16) A 56-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with several episodes in which she felt "dizzy." She has had these symptoms on and off for the past year and can recall no clear exacerbating factor or time of day when her symptoms occur. She has a perpetual sensation of fullness in her ear but otherwise has no symptoms currently. Her temperature is 97.6°F (36.4°C), blood pressure is 122/77 mmHg, pulse is 85/min, respirations are 13/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. Cardiopulmonary exam is unremarkable. The patient's gait is stable. Which of the following is also likely to be found in this patient? Review Topic

QID: 102615
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Conductive hearing loss

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Gradually improving symptoms

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Positional vertigo

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Sensorineural hearing loss

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Vertical nystagmus

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