Pathogenic variants in HPRT1 lead to deficiency in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and are responsible for a spectrum of disorders. The severe phenotype is termed Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) and is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Most individuals with LNS have profound intellectual and physical disabilities throughout life including self-mutilating behaviors. Here, we present the case of a male infant who was diagnosed with LNS at 3 weeks of age via rapid exome sequencing (ES), which revealed a hemizygous maternally inherited deletion of at least 1.3 Mb of Xq26.3, including exons 2 to 9 of HPRT1. We discuss the critical time points leading to this diagnosis while highlighting his parents' values that guided the decision-making. Genetic testing provided an early diagnosis for this infant that led to important considerations regarding goals of care in addition to raising new ethical concerns. This highlights the important role that early and rapid diagnostic genetic testing can play in helping families make difficult decisions. Additionally, this case highlights the complexity of discussing rare genetic diagnoses with families and facilitating critical discussions to empower the family toward making an informed decision.





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