Thyroid nodules are common, being detected in up to 65% of the general population. This is likely due to the increased use of diagnostic imaging for purposes unrelated to the thyroid. Most thyroid nodules are benign, clinically insignificant, and safely managed with a surveillance program. The main goal of initial and long-term follow-up is identification of the small subgroup of nodules that harbor a clinically significant cancer (≈10%), cause compressive symptoms (≈5%), or progress to functional disease (≈5%).

Thyroid function testing and ultrasonographic characteristics guide the initial management of thyroid nodules. Certain ultrasound features, such as a cystic or spongiform appearance, suggest a benign process that does not require additional testing. Suspicious sonographic patterns including solid composition, hypoechogenicity, irregular margins, and microcalcifications should prompt cytological evaluation. Additional diagnostic procedures, such as molecular testing, are indicated only in selected cases, such as indeterminate cytology (≈20%-30% of all biopsies). The initial risk estimate, derived from ultrasound and, if performed, cytology report, should determine the need for treatment and the type, frequency, and length of subsequent follow-up. Management includes simple observation, local treatments, and surgery and should be based on the estimated risk of malignancy and the presence and severity of compressive symptoms.

Most thyroid nodules are benign. A diagnostic approach that uses ultrasound and, when indicated, fine-needle aspiration biopsy and molecular testing, facilitates a personalized, risk-based protocol that promotes high-quality care and minimizes cost and unnecessary testing.