Endocrine and metabolic derangements are infrequent in patients with tuberculosis, but they are important when they occur. The basis for these abnormalities is complex. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been described to infect virtually every endocrine gland, the incidence of gland involvement is low, especially in the era of effective antituberculosis therapy. Furthermore, endocrine and metabolic abnormalities do not always reflect direct infection of the gland but may result from physiological response or as a consequence of therapy. Metabolic disease may also predispose patients to the development of active tuberculosis, particularly in the case of diabetes mellitus. While hormonal therapy may be necessary in some instances, frequently these endocrine complications do not require specific interventions other than antituberculous therapy itself. With the exception of diabetes mellitus, which will be covered elsewhere, this chapter reviews the endocrinologic and metabolic issues related to tuberculosis.

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