Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive tumor that represents the 6th most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The estimated incidence in Spain is 2090 cases/year. Two main pathological subtypes exist, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The main differences between them are localization and underlying factors which are the principal cause of the recent incidence changes observed in west countries. Staging techniques and treatment options which combine surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, reflected the high complexity of the EC management. An undeniably multidisciplinary approach is, therefore, required. In this guide, we review the status of current diagnosis and treatment, define evidence and propose recommendations.