Causes of hematuria can range from benign conditions such as urinary tract infection to serious conditions such as bladder cancer. In evaluating a patient with hematuria, 3 questions must be answered by the primary care physician: (1) Is it really hematuria? (2) Should this patient with hematuria be worked up, and if so, how? (3) Should this patient with hematuria be referred, and if so, to which specialty? This article addresses these questions. Because uniformly high-quality studies are lacking, the recommendations included in this article are mostly based on expert consensus.





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