Updated: 12/31/2021

ENT Medications

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  • ENT Drug Introduction
    • ENT medications can be broken down into the following categories
      • antihistamines
      • antitussives/expectorants
      • decongestants
      • nasal steroid preparations
  • ENT Drug Table
    • Antihistamines
        • Sedating
        • Name
        • Mechanism of Action
        •  Key Indication
        •  Key Toxicity
        • Chlorpheniramine
        • Cyproheptadine
        • Diphenhydramine
        • Dimehydrinate
        • 1st generation antihistamine (H1 blocker)
        •  Antiserotonergic properties (cyproheptadine)
        • Allergies
        •  Motion sickness
        •  Insomnia
        •  Serotonin syndrome (cyproheptadine)
        • Sedation
        •  Orthostatic hypotension
        •  Antimuscarinic
        •  Confusion (cyproheptadine)
        • Non-Sedating
        • Name
        • Mechanism of Action
        •  Key Indication
        •  Key Toxicity
        • Cetrizine
        • Fexofenadine
        • Loratadine
        • 2nd generation H1 blocker
        • Allergies
        • Minor sedation
    • Antitussives/Expectorants
        • Name
        • Mechanism of Action
        •  Key Indication
        •  Key Toxicity
        • Benzonatate
        • Decreases sensitivity of stretch receptors in airways
        • Cough
        • Expectorant (guaifenesin)
        • Pain (hydrocodone)
        • Sedation
        •  Dysphagia
        • Dextromethorphan
        • NMDA antagonist
        •  Mild opioid effects
        • Cough
          Expectorant (guaifenesin)
          Pain (hydrocodone)
        • Rash
        •  Nausea
        •  Sedation
        •  Constipation
        • Guaifenesin
        • Increases volume and decreases viscosity of oral secretions
        • Cough
        • Expectorant (guaifenesin)
        • Pain (hydrocodone)
        • Nausea
        •  Vomiting
        •  Kidney stones
        • Hydrocodone
        • Opioid agonist
        • Cough
        • Expectorant (guaifenesin)
        • Pain (hydrocodone)
        • Nausea
        •  Vomiting
        •  Constipation
        •  Sedation
    • Decongestants
        • Name
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Key Indication
        • Key Toxicity
        • Phenylpropanolamine
        • α/β adrenergic agonist
        •  D1 partial agonist
        • Upper airway congestion
        •  Appetite suppression
        • Tachycardia
        •  Sweating
        •  Dry mucous membranes
        •  Arrhythmias
        • Psuedoephedrine
        • Adrenergic agonist (α, β2)
        • Congestion
        • Hypertension
        •  Insomnia
        •  Agitation
        •  Palpitations
    • Nasal Steroid Preparations
        • Name
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Key Indication
        • Key Toxicity
        • Beclomethasone
        • Budesonide
        • Fluticasone
        • Mometasone
        • Triamcinolone
        • Glucocorticoid
        •  Anti-inflammatory
        • Congestion
        •  Inflammatory bowel disease (budesonide, 1st pass liver metabolism)
        •  Eczema (triamcinolone)
        • Cushingoid effects
        • hypertension
        • muscle wasting
        • central obesity
        • (psychosis)
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