Updated: 1/23/2019

ENT Medications

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ENT Drug Introduction
  • ENT medications can be broken down into the following categories
    • antihistamines
    • antitussives/expectorants
    • decongestants
    • nasal steroid preparations
ENT Drug Table
 
Antihistamines
Name Mechanism of Action  Key Indication  Key Toxicity
Sedating
Chlorpheniramine
  • 1st generation antihistamine (H1 blocker)
  • Antiserotonergic properties (cyproheptadine)
  • Allergies
  • Motion sickness
  • Insomnia
  • Serotonin syndrome (cyproheptadine)
  • Sedation 
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Antimuscarinic
  • Confusion (cyproheptadine)
Cyproheptadine
Diphenhydramine
Dimehydrinate
Non-Sedating
Cetrizine
  • 2nd generation H1 blocker
  • Allergies
  • Minor sedation
Fexofenadine
Loratadine
Antitussives/Expectorants
Benzonatate
  • Decreases sensitivity of stretch receptors in airways
  • Cough
  • Expectorant (guaifenesin)
  • Pain (hydrocodone)
  • Sedation
  • Dysphagia
Dextromethorphan
  • NMDA antagonist
  • Mild opioid effects
  • Rash
  • Nausea
  • Sedation
  • Constipation
Guaifenesin
  • Increases volume and decreases viscosity of oral secretions
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Kidney stones
Hydrocodone
  • Opioid agonist
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Sedation
Decongestants
Phenylpropanolamine
  • α/β adrenergic agonist
  • D1 partial agonist
  • Upper airway congestion
  • Appetite suppression
  • Tachycardia
  • Sweating
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Arrhythmias
Psuedoephedrine
  • Adrenergic agonist (α, β2)
  • Congestion
  • Hypertension
  • Insomnia
  • Agitation
  • Palpitations
Nasal Steroid Preparations
Beclomethasone
  • Glucocorticoid
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Congestion
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (budesonide, 1st pass liver metabolism)
  • Eczema (triamcinolone)
  • Cushingoid effects
    • hypertension
    • muscle wasting
    • central obesity
    • psychosis)
Budesonide
Fluticasone
Mometasone
Triamcinolone
 

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