Updated: 1/2/2021

Anesthesiology Medications

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  • Anethesiology Drug Introduction
    • Anesthesiology medications can be broken down into the following categories
      • inhaled agents
      • neuromuscular blockers
      • sedatives
      • local agents (adding epinephrine can prolong duration of anesthesia)
  • Anethesiology Drug Table
    • Inhaled Agents
      NameMechanism of Action Key Indication Key Toxicity
      General Anesthetics
      Halothane
      • Cortical, myocardial, respiratory depression
      • Inhaled anesthetic
      • Hepatotoxicity
      • Malignant hyperthermia
      Enflurane
      • Proconvulsant
      • Malignant hyperthermia
      Methoxyflurane
      • Nephrotoxicity
      • Malignant hyperthermia
      Sevoflurane
      • Malignant hyperthermia
      Nitrous oxide
      • Gas expansion when trapped in a body cavity
      Neuromuscular Blockers
      Depolarizing Agents
      Succinylcholine
      • Ach receptor agonist (sustained depolarization)
      • Depolarizing neuromuscular blockade
      • Hyperkalemia
        • avoid in burn and crush injury patients
      • Malignant hyperthermia
        • treat with dantrolene and cooling
      Non-Depolarizing Agents (Reversed with Neostigmine and Atropine)
      Pancuronium
      • Competitive antagonist of Ach receptors
      • Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade
      • Tachycardia
      • Respiratory depression
      Atracurium
      Vecuronium
      Rocuronium
      Sedatives
      Atropine
      • Muscarinic antagonist
      • Sedative
      • Cholinergic crisis (organophosphate poisoning)
      • Dry skin
      • Flushed skin
      • Constipation
      • Urinary retention
      • Cycloplegia
      Ketamine
      • NMDA antagonist
      • Dissociative anesthetic
      • Neuropathic pain syndromes
      • Disorientation
      • Hallucinations
      • Nystagmus (vertical, horizontal, or rotary)
      • Laryngospasm
      Midazolam
      • Increases GABA type A channel opening frequency
      • Sedative
      • Relaxant
      • Short-acting, high potency benzodiazepine
      • Respiratory depression
      • Decreased blood pressure
      • Amnesia
      Propofol
      • Potentiates activity at GABA type A channels
      • Sedation
      • Rapid anesthesia induction
      • Pain on injection
      • Decreased blood pressure (reduces cardiac inotropy)
      Thiopental
      • Increases GABA channel opening duration
      • Induction of anesthesia
      • Respiratory depression
      • Cardiovascular depression
      Etomidate
      • GABAa agonist
      • Induction agent
      • Nausea/vomiting
      • Spasms
      • Transient adrenal suppression
      Local Anesthetics
      Lidocaine
      • Blocks voltage gated sodium channels
      • Local anesthetic
        • Fast onset (minutes)
        • Short duration of symptom control (1-3 hours)
      • Seizures
      • Cardiac toxicity
        • bradycardia
        • heart block
      Bupivacaine
      • Blocks voltage gated sodium channels
      • Local anesthetic
        • Slow onset (15 minutes)
        • Long duration of symptom control (4-8 hours)
      • Seizures
      • Cardiac toxicity
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(M2.PH.14.39) A 4-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his mother after cutting his buttock on a piece of broken glass. There is a 5-cm curvilinear laceration over the patient's right buttock. His vital signs are unremarkable. The decision to repair the laceration is made. Which of the following will offer the longest anesthesia for the laceration repair?

QID: 106250

Bupivacaine

23%

(3/13)

Bupivacaine with epinephrine

62%

(8/13)

Lidocaine

8%

(1/13)

Lidocaine mixed with bupivacaine

8%

(1/13)

Lidocaine with epinephrine

0%

(0/13)

M 7 E

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