BACKGROUND:
During pregnancy, a Rhesus negative (Rh-negative) woman may develop antibodies when her fetus is Rhesus positive (Rh-positive). These antibodies may harm Rh-positive babies.

OBJECTIVES:
To assess the effects of antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin on the incidence of Rhesus D alloimmunisation when given to Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012).

SELECTION CRITERIA:
Randomised trials in Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies given anti-D after 28 weeks of pregnancy, compared with no treatment, placebo or a different regimen of anti-D.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted the data.

MAIN RESULTS:
Two trials with moderate to high risk of bias, involving over 4500 women, compared anti-D prophylaxis with no anti-D during pregnancy. When women received anti-D at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation, risks of immunisation were not significantly different than for women not given antenatal anti-D: risk ratio (RR) of immunisation during pregnancy was 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 1.17); after the birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.42 (95% CI 0.15 to 1.17); and within 12 months after birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.39 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.62).However, women receiving anti-D during pregnancy were significantly less likely to register a positive Kleihauer test (which detects fetal cells in maternal blood) in pregnancy (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88) and at the birth of a Rh-positive infant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.79). No data were available for the risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation in a subsequent pregnancy. No significant differences were seen for neonatal jaundice, and no adverse effects were reported in either trial.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
The risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation during or immediately after a first pregnancy is about 1%. Administration of 100 µg (500 IU) anti-D to women in their first pregnancy can reduce this risk to about 0.2% without, to date, any adverse effects. Although unlikely to confer benefit in the current pregnancy, fewer women may have Rhesus D antibodies in any subsequent pregnancy, but the effects of this needs to be tested in studies of robust design.





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