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Snapshot
  •  cataractA 79-year-old man complains of gradual vision loss. He describes his vision as if he is looking through a "dirty window." On physical exam, there is no red reflex.
Introduction
  • Opacifications of the lens resulting in slow and progressive loss of visual acuity
  • Risk factors
    • age
      • found in 50% of people over age 75
    • smoking
    • glucocorticoid use
    • UV exposure
    • trauma
    • DM
    • Wilson's disease
    • Down syndrome
  • When cataracts seen in neonates it is most commonly caused by TORCH infections or diseases of metabolism (galactosemia, Hurler's disease)
Presentation
  •  Symptoms
    • painless, progressive, and slow vision loss
  • Physical exam
    • absent red reflex
Differential
  • Diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, glaucoma, insult to optic centers of the brain
Treatment
  •  Surgical
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  •  Surgical treatment is very effective in treating this condition
 

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