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A 2-year-old male is brought to the emergency department by his mother. The patient awoke in the night screaming, and when the mother changed his diaper she found thick, bloody stool. The child was born at 35 weeks, via c-section, and required an overnight stay in the NICU for tachypnea. Developmentally, the child is at the 38th percentile for weight and has met all milestones. The child's pulse is 110/min, blood pressure is 90/60 mmHg, and respirations are 20/min. An abdominal ultrasound is obtained, and shown in Figure A. What is the next best step in management?
Transanal mucosal biopsy
Emergent exploratory laparoscopy
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A 7-month-old boy presents to the emergency room with three episodes of vomiting and severe abdominal pain that comes and goes for the past two hours. The patient's most recent vomit in the hospital appears bilious, and the patient had one stool that appears bloody and full of mucous. The mother explains that one stool at home appear to be "jelly-like." On physical exam, a palpable mass is felt in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. What is the next best diagnostic test for this patient?
Peripheral blood culture
Kidney, ureter, bladder radiograph
Complete blood count with differential
A 2-year-old is brought to the emergency department by his mother for intermittent abdominal pain. She states the pain seems to be relieved by flexing his knees to his chest. The mother states that she noticed this morning that he passed stool mixed with blood and mucus. On exam, you note abdominal tenderness. An abdominal ultrasound is performed, and the results are shown in Figure A. What is the most common underlying cause of this patient's condition?